Python decorator class to decorate standalone functions and object methods

The advanced technique that I describe below assumes you understand basic mechanic of Python decorators and Python descriptors.

Suppose we want to decorate method func_to_wrap of the class ClassToWrap.

If we create Python decorator class as below:

class Decorator:
    def __init__(self, orig_func):
        self.orig_func = orig_func

    def __call__(self, *args):
        return self.orig_func(*args)

We will fail to use it:

class ClassToWrap:
    def func_to_wrap(self): += '!'
c = ClassToWrap()
func_to_wrap() missing 1 required positional argument: 'self'

As we can see from the error Decorator.__call__ calls func_to_wrap without self. This is because orig_func is unbound, it’s not bound to object instance and we have to pass the instance as first argument. But we cannot!

The self inside Decorator.__call__ is the instance of Decorator.

We do not have ClassToWrap instance inside Decorator.__call__.

Of cause there is simple solution - write the decorator as function.

But I am goin to show you how to write decorator as class, using Python descriptors.

Moreover the decorator will be universal and could be applied to standalone functions as well as to object methods.

The Python descriptor protocol is very simple - if object attribute has method __get__ then Python will call it and return as the attribute value the result of __get__.

Below you can see working example.

The UniversalDecorator.__call__ will work if we decorate standalone functions.

For class method instead of __call__ Python will call __get__ and after that call the result of it as a function.

UniversalDecorator.__get__ returns WrapperHelper with links to both ClassToWrap and Decorator instances.

When Python call the __get__ result (instance of WrapperHelper) it will actually call WrapperHelper.__call__.

WrapperHelper.__call__ add instance of ClassToWrap, as first item in *args (line 6). So func_to_wrap will get instance of ClassToWrap as first argument.